The nervous system requires to receive and process info about the outer world to respond, communicate, and keep the body healthy and harmless. Much of this information comes from the sense organs: eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. The specialized cells and tissues of these organs receive strong stimuli and become signals that the nervous system can use. Nerves transmit signals to the brain, which they interpret as sight (sight), hearing (hearing), smell (smell), taste (taste), and touch (tactile perception).
1. The eyes transform light into image signals that the brain can process.
The eyes are located on the lines of the skull, protected by bone and fat. Sclera is white part of the eye. It protects the internal structures and around them a circular portal that forms the cornea, iris and pupil. The cornea is transparent to allow light to enter the eye and curves to guide it through the pupil from behind. The student is an opening on the magazine’s colored disk. The charger expands, contracts, or adjusts and changes the amount of light that falls through the pupil onto the lens. The curved lens then focuses the image on the retina, the innermost layer of the eye. The retina is a smooth membrane made up of nervous tissue that contains photoreceptor cells. These cells, rods and cones, convert light into nerve signals. The fiber optic nerve transmits signals from the eye to the brain, which they interpret into their visual images.
2. The ear uses bone and fluid to convert sound waves into sound signals.
Music, laughter, and respect for cars: they reach the ear like sound waves in the air. The outer ear directs waves through the ear canal (the outer ear canal) to the eardrum (the “eardrum”). Sound waves hit the ear and create mechanical vibrations in the membrane. The ear transmits this vibration to three small bones called auditory ossicles, which are located in the air-filled cavity of the middle ear. These bones (hammer, anvil, and staples) carry the vibrations and hit the opening of the inner ear. The inner ear is made up of fluid-filled canals, including the spiral-shaped cochlea. When the oscillations are compressed, the specialized hair cells of the cochlea sense pressure waves in the fluid. They activate nerve receptors and send signals through the cochlear nerve to the brain, which interprets the signals as sound. Ear light scope is optimal to examine the issues of the eardrums.
3. Specialized receptors in the skin send touch signals to the brain.
The skin is made up of three main layers of tissue: the outer epidermis, the middle dermis, and the inner hypodermis. Receptor cells specialized in these sequences register tactile sensations and transmit signals to the brain through peripheral nerves. The presence and location of different types of receptors make some parts of the body more sensitive. For example, Merkel cells are found in the lower epidermis of the lips, hands, and external genitalia. Meissner globules are found in the upper dermis of hairless skin: fingers, nipples, soles of the feet. Both receivers register contact, pressure and vibration. The other touch receptors are Pakistani blood cells, which also register pressure and vibration, and the free ends of specialized nerves that feel pain, itching and tickling. You can buy various measuring meters from Medical equipment manufacturers to know, whether your body is working in order or something disordered.
4. Smell: Chemicals in the air stimulate signals that the brain interprets as smell.
The smell is called odor. It begins with specialized nerve receptors in hair-like cilia in the epithelium at the top of the nasal cavity. When we smell or breathe in through our noses, some of the chemicals in the air bind to these receptors. This stimulates a signal that passes through a nerve fiber, through the epithelium and the cranial bone to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulbs contain neural cell bodies that transmit information along the cranial nerves, which are extensions of the olfactory bulbs. They send the signal through the olfactory nerves to the olfactory area of the cerebral cortex.
5. House of taste buds: the tongue is the most important organ of taste.
What are all these little bumps on your tongue? They are called papillae. Many have taste buds, including circumferential papillae and fungiform papillae. When we eat, chemicals from the food enter the taste buds and reach the taste buds. Chemical coughs stimulate specialized taste cells in the taste buds and activate nerve receptors. The recognition towers send signals to the fibers of the facial, glossopharyngeal and vague nerves. These nerves carry signals to the medulla oblongata, which lead to the thalamus and the cerebral cortex of the brain.